Dual Language Programs and models

Dual language education can refer to a variety of programs and practices. Most broadly, DL programs use two different languages for instruction of core subjects like math, reading, social studies, and science. Such programs have three ultimate goals:

(a) the development of bilingualism and biliteracy,
(b) high academic achievement, and
(c) cross-cultural competency.

While the most recent explosion of new programs is in elementary schools, with classes starting in kindergarten, dual language models also exist at the middle and high school levels.

The most common models are called “two-way” and “one-way” immersion, but there are also “heritage” and “developmental bilingual” programs. Each model serves a different group of students:

In Canada, the bilingual education offers French and English programs in one school. Students learn both languages and are instructed in both languages. Exams often vary from one subject to the other, but students shall be competent in both languages. Language teachers shall be able to teach English and French and in most cases STEM programs in either language. Due to high percentage of immigration, nowadays some schools offer trilingual programs in English, French, and the native language of the community such as Hindu, Arabic, Farsi, German, Chinese, or even Russian.


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